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However following struggles for independence in many parts of the continent, as well as a weakened Europe after the Second World War , decolonization took place across the continent, culminating in the 1960 Year of Africa.Africa's pre-colonial history has been challenging to research within the field of African studies, because of the scarcity of written sources in large parts of the continent, particularly with the destruction of many of the most important manuscripts from Timbuktu.Two seed plants, black-eyed peas and voandzeia (African groundnuts), were domesticated, followed by okra and kola nuts.Since most of the plants grew in the forest, the Niger–Congo speakers invented polished stone axes for clearing forest.- anatomically modern humans (Homo sapiens), in East Africa, and continues unbroken into the present as a patchwork of diverse and politically developing nation states.The earliest known recorded history arose in the Kingdom of Kush, Following the desertification of the Sahara, North African history became entwined with the Middle East and Southern Europe while the Bantu expansion swept from modern day Cameroon (West Africa) across much of the sub-Saharan continent in waves between around 1000 BCE and 0 CE, creating a linguistic commonality across much of the central and Southern continent.

Around 16,000 BC, from the Red Sea hills to the northern Ethiopian Highlands, nuts, grasses and tubers were being collected for food.They transported enslaved West, Central, and Southern Africans overseas.Subsequently, European colonization of Africa developed rapidly from around 10% (1870) to over 90% (1914) in the Scramble for Africa (1881-1914).Later, gourds, watermelons, castor beans, and cotton were also collected and domesticated.The people started capturing wild cattle and holding them in circular thorn hedges, resulting in domestication.

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