Radiometric dating margin of error
The geologist is responsible for the discovery of minerals (such as lead, chromium, nickel, and tin), oil, gas, and coal, which are the main economic resources of the Earth; for the application of knowledge of subsurface structures and geologic conditions to the building industry; and for the prevention of natural hazards or at least providing early warning of their occurrence.
Since the 1970s even such distant planetary systems as those of Jupiter, Saturn, and Uranus have been explored by probes.
The combination of weathering and erosion leads to the wearing down or denudation of mountains and continents, with the erosion products being deposited in rivers, internal drainage basins, and the oceans. The unconsolidated accumulated sediments are transformed by the process of diagenesis and lithification into sedimentary rocks, thereby completing a full cycle of the transfer of matter from an old continent to a young ocean and ultimately to the formation of new sedimentary rocks.
Knowledge of the processes of interaction of the atmosphere and the hydrosphere with the surface rocks and soils of the Earth’s crust is important for an understanding not only of the development of landscapes but also (and perhaps more importantly) of the ways in which sediments are created.
Geochemistry is the study of the composition of these different types of rocks.
During mountain building, rocks became highly deformed, and the primary objective of structural geology is to elucidate the mechanism of formation of the many types of structures (e.g., folds and faults) that arise from such deformation.