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Other small states were the duchies of Toscana (Tuscany), Parma, and Modena.

In each of these states, the monarchs (all relatives of the Habsburgs, the ruling family of Austria) exercised absolute powers of Italian patriot spearheaded a national revolutionary movement.

While it initially looked as if the independence and unity of Italy was a realistic possibility, the Austrians defeated the Piedmontese and Charles Albert had to abdicate.

His son, Victor Emmanuel II, succeeded him in 1849.

Mazzini's ideology of an independent integrated republic spread quickly among large segments of the Italian people.

Revolutionary cells formed throughout the Italian peninsula.

Only Sardinia held firm to their constitutional government Cavour was able to persuade Napoleon to a secretly planned war against Austria.Finally, in 1859, Napoleon transferred Lombardy to the sovereignty of Victor Emmanuel II.Following elections during 18, all northern states (of the Italian peninsula), except Venetia, which was still part of Austria, joined the Kingdom of Sardinia.Italian nationalist revolutionary hero and leader in the struggle for Italian unification and independence.Born in 1807 in Nice, France, he joined Mazzini's movement in 1833.

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